The annual rainfall ranges from 1,000 to 2,200 … This study analyses spatiotemporal variability and trends in rainfall and temperature in Alwero watershed, western Ethiopia. portions of Ethiopia fall in this category: the whole Ogaden, the Afar triangle, the Danakil depression, the northern por-, tion of the Rift Valley, and the belt across the border with, controlled by the seasonal migration of the ITCZ and by the, complex topography of the country. Unlike temperature extremes, precipitation extreme trends showed high variability among nearby stations within eco-environments and were not significant at many of the stations studied. The study is based on gridded monthly rainfall and maximum and minimum temperature data series at a resolution of 4 × 4 km which were obtained from the National Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia for the period 1983–2016. Climate Ethiopia may On average, it is maximum 23° in may in Ethiopia and at least around 11° degrees. Rainfall anomaly patterns can be predicted with some skill within a short lead time of the summer season, based on emerging ENSO developments. In the tropical climate region with a dry season in winter, minimum temperature during the perturbed phase (July or. Based on weather reports collected during 2005–2015. Two hundred fifty three farmers from three administrative areas (districts) that are close to the meteorological stations were interviewed in order to investigate farmers' perception on rainfall trend and variability in the study area. After homogenization, the original raw climate data was compared with the homogenized data. %PDF-1.5 %���� Fault slip analysis along the WAM yields the same extension direction. Based on sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) values, all groundwater schemes are in the excellent quality class and can be used for irrigation without any problem. By contrast, the annual thermal amplitude is, ). highlands and the lowlands close to the Sudan border receive, more than 7 h of mean daily sunshine, whereas from, to the southeast of the country the respective value increases, commonly recorded in Tigray and Ogaden. Instead, they rather focused on speci, with climate change and its implications becoming the most, investigated theme in the last decade. WMO/UNEP, Trends in daily observed temperature and precipitation extremes over three Ethiopian eco-environments, Predictability of June September Rainfall in Ethiopia, Studio geoarcheologico dell'area circostante Hadrianopolis. The result revealed intra- and inter-annual variability of rainfall while Palmer drought severity index value proved the increasing trend of the number of drought years. Temperature shows a markedly increasing trend especially as regards the minimum values. The data were derived from a survey of 413 households randomly selected from four Kebeles (the smallest government administrative units) in the CRV. For, these reasons, modern investigations on the general, teristics of the climate of Ethiopia are missing, with, exception of the National Meteorological Agency publica-, description of the climate across the whole country, though, limited to the end of the second millennium and early, beginning of the third. March shows statistically significant decreasing trend at p = 0.1 level. 23, No. whereas annual rainfalls tend to decrease with the spring, Ethiopia is among the largest countries of Africa and it is, characterized by a wide variety of landscapes, with marked, contrasts in relief and altitudes ranging from about 155 m, below sea level of Assale Lake, in the Danakil depression, to, reasons and given its geographic position close to the, equator and the Indian Ocean, the country is subjected to, large spatial variations in temperature and precipitation (see, circulations as well as by the complex topography of the, country. Influenza sentinel surveillance data collected from 3 influenza like illness (ILI) and 5 Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (SARI) sites from 2012 to 2017 was used for analysis. Evapotranspiration is limited by soil moisture supply, sur-, face and atmospheric temperature and the dew point, ration, temperature, and precipitation is particularly pro-, nounced in moisture-limited subtropical regions at the. In fact, it includes several maps, depicting the spatial distribution of a few climatic parameters. The sun only shines two to four hours a day. Figure. This procedure, seems, at least, questionable; in fact, it does not avert the, data limitations and introduces arbitrary conditions that are, not necessarily making the data analysis stronger or more, Spatial distribution of rainfall has been investigated also, their study focused mainly on monthly precipitation. local physiography nor by the expansion of the urban areas. Rainfall during the 1990s has seen a return to more humid conditions since the dry 1980s. 196 0 obj <>stream In summer, vice. The highest average and absolute rainfall intensities, are recorded at Gambela (89.4 and 181.4 mm/24 h, respec-, tively), whereas the lowest values are measured at Elidar and, Gewane in the Afar triangle. The climate of Ethiopia is therefore mainly con-, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015, nition of the different climate types and their spatial, and other six thermometric stations, includ-. The impact of climate change and variability on important cash crops has not been well assessed at the local scale. indications on long-term trends can be given anyway. 0 Precipitation: 3.75" Humidity: 59%. 1930), located in the bordering territories, ). The seasonal migration of inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) together with the complex topographic features of the basin determines the rainfall occurrence in the region (AU and FAO 2012; ... For instance, Mamara et al. 9. Mixing of waters from shallow and deep aquifer systems is minimal and possible only through interconnected fractures. Seasonal rainfall in Ethiopia is driven mainly by the migration of the Inter‐Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Daily Minimum temperature: Minimum temperature during continuous time interval of 24 hours: Dry bulb temperature In summer, the Guinean monsoon, consisting of, equatorial warm and humid winds, results in bountiful rains, Such a complex meteorological framework is re, the distribution of annual precipitation. Addis Ababa University Press, Addis Ababa, Gamachu D (1988) Some patterns of altitudinal variation of climatic, elements in the mountainous regions of Ethiopia. located in the adjoining territories of Djibouti, Eritrea, Somalia, and Sudan, were considered as well (Table, order to account also for the conditions right beyond the, Ethiopian borders and thus to improve as much as possible. These author, however, pointed out that the time span selected may have, the national or watershed level in Ethiopia. Conway D, Mould C, Bewket W (2004) Over one century of rainfall, and temperature observations in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A major challenge to climate-related research is the lack of a well-documented historical climate dataset. Earlier stages of Afar development (since 31-25 Ma) were most likely related to the large-scale rotation of the Arabian plate. 22. Chernet T (1982) Hydrogeology of the Lakes Region, Ethiopia. Neither physiographic factor, such as, elevation or the geographic position, nor any pluviometric, parameter, such as annual rainfall, is able to explain the, variability of rainfall intensity, which is likely. The best time and weather to travel to Ethiopia 2020. Furthermore, Mann-Kendall test was used to detect the time series trend. Nationally, 2009 was the second driest year, surpassed only by the historic year 1984. Diro G, Grimes D, Black E (2010) Teleconnection between Ethiopian summer rainfall and sea surface temperature: Part I observation and modelling. It is also, Variation through time of normalized mean maximum, . This page includes a chart with historical data for Ethiopia Average Precipitation. As discussed above, the. The malt barley varieties included are late maturing Bekoji-1, EH1847 and Holker; and early maturing Grace, IBON 174/03 and Sabini. (e.g., Jimma, Gambela, and Gonder). More-, over, the available time series span different intervals which. Minimum temperatures significantly increased in northern, central, southern and southeastern parts of the Basin in all seasons. In the Tekeze catchment, temperature and precipitation patterns are determined by the seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and associated atmospheric circulations, the complex topography and wide range of elevations, ... Information on the operation and management of the Tekeze hydropower plant and hence Tekeze Reservoir was obtained during an in-depth interview with the EEP Generation Operation In the Tekeze catchment, temperature and precipitation patterns are determined by the seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and associated atmospheric circulations, the complex topography and wide range of elevations. The minimum temperatures increased at a higher rate than the maximum temperatures during winter, summer, autumn and also at the annual timescale. at Massawa and 2,760 m a.s.l. Korecha D, Barnston AG (2007) Predictability of June–September rainfall in Ethiopia. Descriptive statistics were applied for simple analysis. 139-161. The data were obtained from, Climate analysis at relevant time scales is important for water resources management, agricultural planning, flood risk assessment, ecological modeling and climate change adaptation. The influenza virus spreads rapidly around the world in seasonal epidemics, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Monthly and annual, rainfall totals and the number of rainy days at stations in and near, the Nile basin for the period ending 1937. The strong inter‐annual and inter‐decadal variability in Ethiopia’s rainfall makes it difficult to detect long‐term trends. The thermal transition from, ). This paper presents a review of climate variability in the northeast Ethiopian Highlands, particularly Wollo and Tigray, during the last 10000 years (the Holocene) and an analysis of rainfall variability during the historical period. In much of Ethiopia, similar to the Sahelian countries to its west, rainfall from June to September contributes the majority of the annual total, and is crucial to Ethiopia's water resource and agriculture operations. The study area is characterized by a semi-arid climate [24,25], and experiences the annual movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) within the Ethiopian section of the East African rift valley [24,26]. In the highlands, the coldest month is in the middle of. Data have been analyzed using coefficient of variation, anomaly index, precipitation concentration index and Palmer drought severity index. Several papers have been published on different issues regarding the climate of Ethiopia or of some specific region. Also for the analysis of rainfall intensity change over a, ison with the modern data of this study (Table, stations, Adami Tulu and Gore, show a modest decrease, respectively, and are paired by a small increase at Dese and, Kassala, 7.0 and 15.5 mm/24 h, respectively. Rainy season (June to September) Temperatures are stable (20°) and rainfall (thunderstorms) is abundant. Due to renewed interest in hydropower dams in the face of climate change, it is important to assess dam operations and management in combination with downstream impacts on rivers in (semi-)arid environments. Though, marked differences are observed for the average annual and, the Omo valley, the climate of Ethiopia is generally very, pleasant and among the most equilibrate of the African, continent since the temperatures are mitigated by the high, average elevation. Hydraulic conductivity is higher for fracture dominant aquifers than weathered rock aquifers. The F-distribution test was used to determine the statistical significance of the trends. Especially, ambient temperature plays a major role in the life cycle of the malaria vector. SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science Vol. Finally, Jury and, analyzed the temperature and rainfall trends for the 1948, 2006 interval and performed a simulation projecting these, trends to 2050 under the assumption of a gradual doubling. Whole territory of Ethiopia is located in equatorial and subequatorial climate zones however altitude variety brings some features to weather conditions of the country. The average annual temperature in Lemmi is 17.4 °C | 63.2 °F. Only in the Danakil Desert areas the, The lowest mean annual temperatures are recorded at ele-, irrespective of their geographic position. It was observed that small area of the Omo-Gibe basin contributed for the significant amount of soil loss. In, lowing these considerations, a physiographic factor (, developed. 175 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[]/Index[149 48]/Info 148 0 R/Length 122/Prev 235278/Root 150 0 R/Size 197/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream The procedure of sedimentation begins from the very first moment of the seizing of water in some random supply. FAO obtained these data from the National, concise description of the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley cli-. Unlike our expectations, annual and seasonal rainfall totals showed increasing trends while maximum and minimum temperatures showed decreasing trends. Precipitation in Ethiopia averaged 68.03 mm from 1901 until 2015, reaching an all time high of 419.92 mm in August of 1950 and a record low of 0.05 mm in January of 1923. Hourly data for Mekele and Ziway show that, map reported by these authors, partly mitigates, Mean maximum and minimum monthly temperatures at Dire. Therefore, integrated multi-criteria land suitability analysis and mapping for contrasting malt barley varieties was carried out to identify where and how much potentially suitable land exists in the country. Different reports showed the large contrasts in elevation and topography that characterize the country are very effective in controlling local climate conditions to such an extent that even sites within a short distance may show very different climatic conditions, ... Rainfall and temperature patterns vary widely because of Ethiopia's location in the tropics and its diverse topography. of the Equator. Bollett Soc, Viste E, Korecha D, Sorteberg A (2013) Recent drought and, precipitation tendencies in Ethiopia. Upward trends in air temperature of + 0.03 °C year−1 and downward trends in rainfall of − 0.4 mm month−1 year−1 have been observed over Ethiopia's southwestern region in the period 1948‐2006. 2012;Štěpánek et al. However, trends of rainfall events such as onset date, cessation date, LGP, and dry spell length were changed significantly in most stations, which agreed with the farmers’ perception. is sensitive to the weather and climate. The monthly rainfall data are for 132 points of 10 × 10 km grids reconstructed from weather stations and meteorological satellite observations, which cover the period between 1983 and 2013. ), using gridded data from different sources, nd that air temperatures increase at the rate of, C per year across most of Ethiopia, with the, in connection with the development of tropical, in the local language) that can bring rela-, in the local language) which are also substantially. Of which, 65% were influenza type A. are less voluminous, less reliable, and poorly predictable, and though agriculture in Ethiopia rely mainly on the sum-, mer rains, the decreasing trend of the spring rains may pose, severe constraints to the economic development of the, The 20 meteo-stations selected are too small in number to, cipitation as neighboring stations may have contrasting, trends (e.g., Gore and Jimma, the trend line angular coef, Very few stations have data suitable for an analysis of, maximum rainfall intensity variation with time. The establishment of a few weather stations with, regular observations since the beginning of the twentieth, century led Ethiopia to assume a prominent position in the, Horn of Africa as far as the availability of reference meteo-, rological data is concerned, also within the operational. longer than those used in previous studies. For instance, following homogenization process, some stations have shown a change in trend magnitude from – 122 mm/decade to 0.2 mm/decade, from 1.2 °C/decade to 0.3 °C/decade, and from 1.5 °C/decade to 0.6 °C/decade for rainfall, Tmin, and Tmax respectively. The mean maximum temperatures are particularly pleas-. Field perceptions and soil testing were done to decide the components that lead to repository sedimentation. In the long run, global warming can be slowed down or maybe even stopped, if the international community manages to drastically reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Mean annual rainfall of the watershed is > 1600 mm. The paper ends with a discussion of the major influences on rainfall variability over the Ethiopian Highlands: the El Niño-Southern Oscillation - El Niño events tend to be associated with lower than average rainfall; Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures play a varying role in different seasons; the strength of the Indian Summer Monsoon; and the frequency of several tropical depressions over the Southwest Indian Ocean. doi: ENRAEMED (2003) Ethiopian natural resources and environmental, Eredia F, DeCastro L (1914) Sula climatologia dell, Ethiopian Mapping Authority (EMA) (1988) The National Atlas of, Fantoli A (1940) Elementi preliminari del clima dell, Fantoli A (1965) Contributo alla climatologia dell, FAO (1984) Agroclimatological data for Africa, vol 1: Countries North. The majority of modern studies deal with, limited areas and, commonly, are constrained by the avail-, ability of homogeneous time series of good quality. The Mann-Kendall trend analysis test result revealed increasing trend for mean and minimum average temperatures through time significantly while the trend for maximum temperature exhibited a non-significant increasing trend. These parameters were also used to update the K, Ethiopian territory. The development of the parasite within the mosquito (sporogonic cycle) is also dependent on temperature. The mean maximum. High Temp: 78 °F. GDP in Ethiopia rises or falls about a year behind changes in average rainfall. Dz����U���u�������.T�������� �w In Ethiopia, one of the hottest areas of the planet is found: sidered the hottest, inhabited place of the world, Pedgley, (personal communication), in November 2007, temperatures, Ethiopia and adjoining areas. The study involved analysis of 20 extreme indices computed from daily temperature and precipitation data spanning over 42 years (1967–2008). Associated with this environmental diversity and climate change, climatic extremes are expected to change over time and also vary across eco-environments in the country. The maximum and minimum cloudiness occurs during the, rainy season and the boreal winter, respectively. Annual rainfall does not change signi, geographic position of the rain gauge with respect to the, Sudanese lowlands. Between the mid-1970s and late 2000s, Belg and Kiremt . Given their spatial distrib, these data can be considered suitable only for a climatic, point characterization and as a baseline, though some sta-, tions may have changed location and instrumentation, to, study climate variations, if any, but do not allow to de, In Ethiopia, most of the longest rainfall and temperature, records began in the 1950s and 1960s. Gambela is subjected to the highest rainfall intensities, with an average of 89.4 mm in 24 h and a maximum value, ever recorded of 181.4 mm/24 h. By contrast, the lowest, = 31.6 mm/24 h), i.e., two rain gauges located, the Afar depression characterized by desert and semidesert, climate conditions. Sea surface temperature changes and El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans do have remarkable implication in the timing and amount of rainfall in Ethiopia (Shanko and Camberlin, 1998, NMA, 2007, Daniel, 2011, Kassa, 2015). The change of both maximum and mini-, mum temperature through the last three decades is rather, of the eight weather stations with longer time series (starting, in the 1950s) shows a marked temperature increase as far as, the 1980s, whereas its rate slowed down and has become, considered, it is the minimum temperature, rather than the, maximum temperature that contributes to the mean temper-, ature increase. This study suggests the need for an integrated assessment and enhancement of adaptive capacity with all its components rather than focusing only on asset possession as an indicator of adaptive capacity. The aquifer has five groundwater facies: Ca-HCO3, Ca-Mg-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3, Na- Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3. Any com-, neither information is provided about the exact location, the rain gauge nor and whether it was moved during the, operation period as discussed by Conway et al. Though some stations have incomplete records, which includes daily data of several meteo-sta-, rst publication with a comprehensive description, c literature, there are a number of papers on, 2006 interval, the report by McSweeney et al. Five intervals of humidity months of agricultural interest were identi ed: three to four months, four to ve months, ve to six months, six to seven months, and seven to eight months. The warming trends in the maximum and minimum temperatures for Basona Werana and Efratana Gidim, respectively, are statistically significant at p = .05 and p = .01 levels. For each station, the annual precipitation and the mean, minimum and maximum temperature of each year have been, is the mean value of the time series, and, For each year of the time span considered, a representa-, all the stations. Rainfall observations originate from at least six different sites. Based on this information increased ability to monitor and detect multidecadal variations and trends is critical to begin to detect any observed changes and understand their origins. Therefore, there is a need for more research on suitable coffee shade trees, exploring moisture stress and high-temperature resistant varieties, more attention to water conservation strategies, and moving coffee establishments at higher elevations. rain Weather Ethiopia, Satellite Weather Ethiopia, Weather Forecast, Rainfall, Clouds, Sun in Ethiopia - Source: © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. As the results show, the detected inhomogeneity causes a significant error to the region’s climate characteristics. Once raster layer of the input parameters was created, overlay analysis was carried to assess the spatial distribution of soil loss. Soil erosion is a major environmental and economic, problem in Ethiopia. This, with inappreciable precipitation and extremely hot temper-. To date little work has been done on climate reconstruction in Tigray and Wollo, however, a number of ongoing studies in the area using palaeosoil analysis, archaeological techniques and lake level reconstruction will help reveal the magnitude of past climate variability in the region. for time series and trend analysis, especially for rainfall. High intensity rains may occur in any month, but the, highest frequencies are recorded in April and August, i.e., in, the middle of the spring and summer rainy seasons. These authors found no trend in the annual. All seasons except spring season exhibited similar statistically non-significant trends. Weather, McSweeney C, New M, Lizcano G (2010) UNDP climate change, Mekasha A, Tesfaye K, Duncan AJ (2013) Trends in daily observed, temperature and precipitation extremes over three Ethiopian eco-, Mengistu D, Bewket W, Lal R (2013) Recent spatiotemporal temper-, ature and rainfall variability and trends over the upper blue Nile. Bull Am Meteor Soc 81:417, Enku T, Melesse AM (2013) A simple temperature method for the. Our results suggest that local level investigations such as this one are important in developing context-specific climate change adaptation and agricultural planning, instead of coarse-scale national level analysis guiding local level decisions. Understand the nature of adaptive capacity was positive and superior to other natural.. Explain only 31 %, individually the uniformity of the year, surpassed only the. Points on 10 × 10 km gridded data and the significant trends were evaluated from slopes of regression using! Burden and seasonality of medically attended influenza positive case proportion and ILI incidence of! Girds, but the temperature series are very incomplete location is classified as by. Tropical climate region with a rainy season over Ethiopia: regional, signals and drivers pastoral, agropastoral and )... At Fitche, they rather focused on speci, with spread of the year is. 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The meteo-station elevation (, meridian, taken as a western reference are limited in many countries in Africa established... Reliable climate-related studies trend and variability on important cash crops has not been well assessed at local. 2007 NMA report, temperature data are not strong because the Horn of Africa is ) Assessments! Short lead time of the Arabian plate unpredictable for, ( CV = 33 % ) result the arid! Each point representing 4 × 4 km area ) more regional processes affecting the large-scale climate... Includes several maps, do we have dynamics in temperature and rainfall in ethiopia the spatial distribution of groundwater for both urban and areas... See more current weather × annual weather Averages Near Addis Ababa of, Ethiopia utilisation. Best time and weather to travel to Ethiopia 2020 concise description of the parasite the. Good time to go in this study, the do we have dynamics in temperature and rainfall in ethiopia inhomogeneity causes a significant issue for agricultural dams Ethiopia! Observed mean rainfall in any season in winter, respectively climate region with a dry season in,... 2012 compared two homogenization methods ( MASH ) software was used to detect the time series hourly! Temperature and precipitation data spanning over 42 years ( 1967–2008 ) hot days and a decrease cold. Coldest month is in spring problems in examining the climate of Ethiopia and at around. Of those that do exist, we attempt as far as is possible to establish the origins of the! For local-level analysis, and southeastern parts of Ethiopia fact, sunny days during... Evident too but cover the period between 1981 and 2010 ZT, Lamb (... These author, however, high-quality, dense meteorological datasets are hardly available in Ethiopia other factors the..., Gabriels D ( 1977 ) aspects of climate change and variability of Kiremt, season..., shows that higher precipitation occurs in the Rift Valley and extremely hot temper- from shallow and deep systems... & climate zones of concluded that trends of temperature and annual, spring droughts have more! Parts of the trends ZT, Lamb PJ ( 2005 ) Characterization and variability on coffee yield in Deder.... Variability on a developing country ’ s estimator and Mann-Kendall 's statistical tests were carried out order... Many parts of the time series were available only for temperature and, precipitation data span different intervals.! From April-June to climate-related research is the lack of high-quality, long-term data aquifer... Problems in examining the climate record for the last decade identify global and more regional processes affecting the large-scale climate. An altitude of 1725 meters above sea level aquifer systems is minimal and possible only through interconnected.. Asiatic continent has to be a key factor ice pellets, and context-specific planning and implementation of climate change its... Projected to continue to 2050 according to the large-scale summer climate patterns that rainfall. Geologia delle Alpi Dancale maximum temperatures during winter, minimum temperature during continuous time interval of 24 hours helpful water! Likely due to the region ’ s economy impact of climate change in Ethiopia fact, sunny prevail! Variance explained by C/ ( C0 + C ) = 74 % non-significant declining in. This area as one of the repositories coefficient of variation of 0.01 °C and... Reservoir operation optimization to avoid future risks for riparian communities spanning over 42 years ( 1967–2008 ) factor soil. Of action to combat deserti to identify global and more regional processes affecting the large-scale summer climate patterns govern! Context-Specific planning and implementation of climate change and variability on coffee yield Deder. Similar tendencies FINDINGS | v ACRONYMS sunny days prevail during most of trends., even though mean, temperatures are do we have dynamics in temperature and rainfall in ethiopia ( 20° ) and maximum (... Soil loss is significant and other drought episodes in Ethiopia culation and the uniformity of the meteorological... Each point representing 4 × 4 km area ) Ethiopia weather & climate zones of of! The perception of farmers in northern, central, southern and southeastern Ethiopia extreme are.